Climbing shoe parts

Climbing Shoe Anatomy: The Components of a Quality Shoe

The different parts of a climbing shoe

A climbing shoe consists of several parts that are designed to provide support, grip, and protection for the climber’s feet. The specific design and components of climbing shoes can vary depending on the type of climbing (such as sport climbing, trad climbing, or bouldering) and the brand or model of the shoe. However, the main parts of a climbing shoe generally include:

Upper:

The upper is the part of the climbing shoe that covers the top of the foot. It is typically made of synthetic materials or leather and provides support and protection for the foot, while allowing for flexibility and breathability. Some shoes have more rubber on the upper for toe hooking. 

Leather: Leather uppers are known for their durability, breathability, and ability to stretch and conform to the shape of the foot over time. Leather climbing shoes tend to provide a snug and precise fit, and they can be a good option for trad climbing or multi-pitch routes where comfort and durability are important.

Synthetic: Synthetic uppers are typically made from materials like synthetic leather, microfiber, or synthetic mesh. Synthetic uppers tend to be more breathable, quick-drying, and less likely to stretch compared to leather uppers. Synthetic uppers can also be more lightweight, which can be advantageous for bouldering or sport climbing where weight is a concern. They often offer a more precise fit and are less likely to stretch over time, maintaining their shape and performance longer.

Toe box:

The toe box is the front part of the climbing shoe that covers the toes. It is usually reinforced with rubber and is designed to provide grip and precision for toe holds on the rock or climbing surface.

Climbing shoes designed for more overhanging routes, often in bouldering or sport climbing, often have a more downturned shape and a more pointed toe box. The downturned shape helps to generate more power and precision on small footholds and overhangs, while the pointed toe box allows for precise toe placements on small holds.

Leisurely/comfort shoes: Climbing shoes designed for more leisurely climbing or all-day comfort, such as for trad climbing or long multi-pitch routes, typically have a flatter or neutral toe box shape. This allows for a more relaxed fit and more comfort during extended periods of wear. The toe box may also be more rounded, providing more space for the toes to spread out and reducing discomfort during long climbing sessions.

Rand:

The rand is a rubber strip that wraps around the edge of the climbing shoe, typically covering the toe box and sometimes extending to the heel. It helps protect the shoe from abrasion and provides additional grip and support on the edges of footholds.

Toe protection: Shoes that are more optimised for toe-hooking have the rand rubber going higher on top of the upper. The toe rand helps protect the front of the shoe and the toes from abrasion and impact against the rock. It adds an extra layer of durability to the climbing shoe, especially in areas where the shoe may come into contact with rough rock surfaces or during toe-hooking maneuvers in bouldering.

Contoured rand shape: Toe hooking-specific climbing shoes may have a contoured rand shape that is optimized for hooking onto holds with the toes. This can include a more pronounced curve or downturned shape in the toe rand, which can help facilitate effective toe hooking maneuvers and provide a better fit for the foot when using the toes for hooking.

Grip and friction: The rubber toe rand can provide additional grip and friction when toe-hooking on holds or smearing on the rock surface. It helps the climber maintain traction and control during technical climbing maneuvers that require precise foot placement.

Edging performance: The toe rand can also enhance the edging performance of the climbing shoe. When the climber is standing on small edges, the toe rand can provide additional support and rigidity to the front of the shoe, allowing for more precise footwork and improved edging performance.

Shoe shape retention: The toe rand can help maintain the shape of the climbing shoe’s toe box over time, preventing it from collapsing or deforming with regular use, which can help preserve the performance and fit of the shoe.

Sole:

The sole is the bottom part of the climbing shoe that comes into direct contact with the climbing surface. It is typically made of rubber and is designed to provide optimal friction and grip on the rock or climbing wall. The shaping of the sole can be made more into a cup for edging performance and for smaller foot holds. A round shape in the sole is often better for smearing in to larger holds.

Midsole:

Some climbing shoes may have a midsole, which is a layer of material located between the sole and the upper. The midsole can provide additional support, stiffness, and edging performance.

Stiff midsoles: Climbing shoes with stiffer midsoles provide more support and rigidity, which can be advantageous for edging on small footholds and maintaining precise foot placements on vertical or overhanging terrain. Stiff midsoles help to transfer power from the foot to the rock, allowing for greater accuracy and efficiency in footwork. These shoes are often used in sport climbing, bouldering, or  trad climbing where precise foot placements are crucial.

Soft midsoles: Climbing shoes with softer midsoles are more sensitive and flexible, allowing for better feel and grip on the rock, particularly when smearing or climbing on less steep terrain. Soft midsoles conform to the shape of the rock surface, providing a better sense of the holds and allowing for more delicate footwork. These shoes are often used in trad climbing, multi-pitch routes, or for climbers who prioritize comfort during extended periods of wear.

Progressive midsoles: Some climbing shoes feature a progressive midsole design, where the stiffness of the midsole varies from the toe to the heel. This allows for a combination of precision and sensitivity, with a stiffer toe for edging and a softer heel for smearing and increased comfort. Progressive midsoles are commonly found in all-around climbing shoes that are designed to perform well in a variety of climbing styles and terrains.

Closure system:

Climbing shoes may have different types of closure systems, such as laces, velcro straps, or slip-ons, which allow the climber to adjust the fit of the shoe to their preference.

Velcro closure: Velcro closures are quick and easy to adjust, making them a popular choice for many climbers. They allow for fast and convenient on/off, making them ideal for bouldering or sport climbing where frequent shoe removal is needed. Velcro closures also provide a customizable fit, allowing for adjustments to accommodate different foot shapes or sock thicknesses.

Lace-up closure: Lace-up closures provide a more precise and customizable fit compared to Velcro closures. They allow for fine-tuning of tension across different parts of the shoe, which can be beneficial for optimizing performance on specific types of climbs or for climbers with irregularly shaped feet. Lace-up closures also tend to distribute pressure more evenly across the foot, which can enhance comfort during extended climbing sessions. They are often used in bouldering where they are taken off after attempts or while belaying in a multi-pitch route.

Slip-on closure: Slip-on closures, also known as slippers, are simple and convenient to put on and take off as they lack any laces or Velcro straps. They provide a snug fit and are often designed to be sensitive and comfortable for smearing and slab climbing. Slip-on closures are popular among boulderers, gym climbers, or those looking for a minimalist design. Slip-on shoes are more size sensitive as they can’t be tightened or loosened. Many climbers use these for warm-ups or other easier climbing.

Heel cup:

The heel cup is the part of the climbing shoe that covers the heel. It is typically designed to provide a snug and secure fit around the heel, allowing for precise heel hooking and stability. As I have sold climbing shoes at a gym I have noticed that one of the easiest things to miss when buying climbing shoes is the heel cup. A good fit is essential for heel hooking and overall use of the shoes. The amount and quality of the rubber in the heel makes a big difference when advancing to harder routes as they demand more and more heel hooking.

Pull tabs:

Some climbing shoes may have pull tabs, which are loops or tabs located at the heel and/or tongue of the shoe that make it easier to put on or take off the shoes. Its interesting to see how the pull loops are going to be advancing in the future as there have been some occasions where a pull tab has been clipped into a quickdraw. You can watch an example here!

Insole:

The insole is the inner sole of the climbing shoe that provides cushioning and comfort for the foot.

The design and features of climbing shoes can vary widely depending on the specific brand, model, and type of climbing. It’s important to choose climbing shoes that fit well and are appropriate for your climbing style and ability level for optimal performance and comfort.

Climbing shoe parts

Climbing shoe anatomy depending on the climbing discipline

Climbing shoes can vary in design and features based on the type of climbing they are intended for, such as bouldering, sport climbing, or trad climbing. While there may be some overlap and individual preferences can vary, here are some general differences in climbing shoe anatomy for these different types of climbing:

Bouldering Shoes:

  • Aggressive profile: Bouldering shoes often have a more aggressive downturned shape that helps generate power and precision on steep or overhanging terrain. This shape facilitates toe-hooking and heel-hooking maneuvers.
  • Sticky rubber: Bouldering shoes usually have sticky rubber soles for optimal grip on a variety of rock types and textures, as smearing and friction are important in bouldering.
  • Minimalist design: Bouldering shoes often have a minimalist design with little padding to maximize sensitivity and feel on the rock, allowing for better feedback and precision when placing feet on small holds.
  • Soft or flexible sole: Bouldering shoes may have softer or more flexible soles to allow for better sensitivity and “feel” on the rock, which can be advantageous for smearing techniques.
  • Snug fit: Bouldering shoes typically have a snug fit for precise foot placements, without painful pressure points, to maximize sensitivity and control.

Sport Climbing Shoes:

  • Moderate profile: Sport climbing shoes generally have a less aggressive profile compared to bouldering shoes, with a more neutral or slightly downturned shape that balances comfort and performance.
  • Sticky rubber: Sticky rubber soles are still common in sport climbing shoes, but they may be slightly thicker or more durable compared to bouldering shoes due to the longer duration of sport climbing routes.
  • Comfort-oriented features: Sport climbing shoes may have additional features such as slightly thicker padding, more breathable uppers, or adjustable closures for increased comfort during longer climbing sessions.
  • Moderate sole stiffness: Sport climbing shoes may have a moderate sole stiffness that balances sensitivity and support, as sport climbing routes can involve a mix of edging, smearing, and more sustained climbing.

Trad Climbing Shoes:

  • Neutral profile: Trad climbing shoes typically have a more neutral or flat profile, providing a comfortable fit for long days of climbing and multi-pitch routes, where comfort and durability may be prioritized over aggressive performance.
  • Sticky rubber: Sticky rubber soles are still important in trad climbing shoes for reliable friction on various types of rock, but they may be slightly thicker or more durable compared to bouldering shoes.
  • Durable construction: Trad climbing shoes may have a more robust and durable construction to withstand the rigors of crack climbing and abrasive rock, as trad climbing often involves jamming feet into cracks.
  • All-day comfort: Comfort is a key consideration for trad climbing shoes, as climbers may wear them for long periods of time on multi-pitch routes. They may have more padding, a roomier toe box, and a more relaxed fit for enhanced comfort during extended climbing sessions.

Multi-Pitch climbing shoes:

  • Multi-pitch climbing involves climbing multiple pitches or rope lengths in a single climbing route, often requiring longer periods of time on the rock compared to single-pitch climbing. When it comes to climbing shoe anatomy for multi-pitch climbing, a balance between comfort and performance is typically sought after. 
  •  Comfort-oriented features: Multi-pitch climbing shoes may prioritize comfort with features such as thicker padding, a more relaxed fit, and breathable uppers to accommodate longer climbing sessions and reduce discomfort during extended periods of wear.
  • Moderate profile: Climbing shoes for multi-pitch climbing often have a moderate profile, with a neutral or slightly downturned shape that balances performance and comfort. This allows for precise foot placements and sensitivity while maintaining comfort during long climbing sessions.
  • Moderate sole stiffness: Multi-pitch climbing shoes may have a moderate sole stiffness that provides a balance between sensitivity and support. This allows for effective edging on small holds while still providing enough support for long routes that may involve sustained climbing.
  • Durable construction: As multi-pitch climbing routes may involve various types of rock and extended wear, durability becomes important. Climbing shoes for multi-pitch climbing may have a more robust construction to withstand the rigors of climbing on different types of rock and to ensure longevity.
  • Versatility: Multi-pitch climbing shoes may be designed to perform well on different types of terrain, including cracks, slabs, and faces, as multi-pitch routes can involve a variety of climbing styles. Versatility in the shoe’s design can be beneficial for adapting to different rock types and climbing techniques.
 

It’s important to note that these are general trends and that individual preferences can vary greatly. Some climbers may use bouldering shoes for sport climbing or trad climbing, depending on their climbing style and preferences. Lot of my trad climber friends climb everything on their TC Pros while my more boulder oriented friends tend to climb even really delicate slab with their Scarpa Dragos. Ultimately, the best climbing shoe for you will depend on your climbing ability, comfort preferences, and the specific type of climbing you enjoy. Trying on different shoes and finding the right fit and features that suit your needs is key to finding the perfect climbing shoe for your chosen type of climbing.

La sportiva climbing shoe being made
The inner part of the shoe being shaped

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